science 杂志 125 个最前沿的科学问题

在庆祝 SCIENCE 创刊 125 周年之际,该刊杂志社公布了 125 个最具挑战性的科学问题。

简单归纳统计这 125 个问题,其中涉及生命科学的问题占 46%,关系宇宙和地球的问题占 16%,与物质科学相关的问题占 14% 以上,认知科学问题占 9%。其余问题分别涉及数学与计算机科学、政治与经济、能源、环境和人口等。 在今后 1/4 个世纪的时间里,人们将致力于研究解决这些问题。其中,前 25 个被认为是最重要的问题。 这 125 个问题如下:

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1 宇宙由什么构成?

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2 意识的生物学基础是什么?

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3 为什么人类基因会如此之少?

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4 遗传变异与人类健康的相关程度如何?

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5 物理定律能否统一?

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6 人类寿命到底可以延长多久?

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7 是什么控制着器官再生?

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8 皮肤细胞如何成为神经细胞?

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9 单个体细胞怎样成为整株植物?

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10 地球内部如何运行?

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11 地球人类在宇宙中是否独一无二?

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12 地球生命在何处产生、如何产生?

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13 什么决定了物种的多样性?

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14 什么基因的改变造就了独特的人类?

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15 记忆如何存储和恢复?

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16 人类合作行为如何发展?

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17 怎样从海量生物数据中产生大的可视图片?

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18 化学自组织的发展程度如何?

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19 什么是传统计算的极限?

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20 我们能否有选择地切断某些免疫反应?

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21 量子不确定性和非局部性背后是否有更深刻的原理?

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22 能否研制出有效的HIV疫苗?

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23 温室效应会使地球温度达到多高?

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24 什么时间用什么能源可以替代石油?

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25 地球到底能负担多少人口?

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26 宇宙是否唯一?

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27 是什么驱动宇宙膨胀?

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28 第一颗恒星与星系何时产生、怎样产生?

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29 超高能宇宙射线来自何处?

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30 是什么给类星体提供动力?

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31 黑洞的本质是什么?

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32 正物质为何多于反物质?

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33 质子会衰减吗?

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34 重力的本质是什么?

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35 时间为何不同于其他维度?

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36 是否存在比夸克更小的基本粒子?

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37 中微子是其自己的反粒子吗?

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38 是否有解释所有相关电子系统的统一理论?

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39 人类能够制造最强的激光吗?

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40 能否制造完美的光学透镜?

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41 是否可能制造出室温下的磁性半导体?

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42 什么是高温超导性之后的成对机制?

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43 能否发展关于湍流动力学和颗粒材料运动学的综合理论?

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44 是否存在稳定的高原子量元素?

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45 固体中是否有超流动性?如果有,如何解释?

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46 水的结构如何?

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47 玻璃态物质的本质是什么?

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48 是否存在合理化学合成的极限?

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49 光电电池的最终效率如何?

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50 核聚变将最终成为未来的能源吗?

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51 驱动太阳磁周期的原因是什么?

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52 行星怎样形成?

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53 是什么引发了冰期?

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54 使地球磁场逆转的原因是什么?

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55 是否存在有助于预报的地震先兆?

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56 太阳系的其他星球上现在和过去是否存在生命?

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57 自然界中手性原则的起源是什么?

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58 能否预测蛋白质折叠?

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59 人体中的蛋白质有多少存在方式?

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60 蛋白质如何发现其作用对象?

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61 细胞死亡有多少种形式?

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62 是什么保持了细胞内的通行顺畅?

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63 为什么细胞的成分可以独立于DNA而自行复制?

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64 基因组中功能不同于RNA的角色是什么?

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65 基因组中端粒和丝粒的作用是什么?

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66 为什么一些基因组很大,另一些又相当紧凑?

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67 基因组中的“垃圾”(“junk”)有何作用?

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68 新技术能使DNA测序的成本降低多少?

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69 器官和整个有机体如何了解停止生长的时间?

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70 除了继承突变,基因组如何改变?

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71 在胚胎期,不对称现象是如何确定的?

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72 翼、鳍和面孔如何发育进化?

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73 是什么引发了青春期?

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74 干细胞是否位于所有肿瘤的中心?

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75 肿瘤更容易通过免疫进行控制吗?

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76 肿瘤的控制比治愈是否更容易?

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77 炎症是所有慢性疾病的主要原因吗?

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78 疯牛病会怎样发展?

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79 脊椎动物在多大程度上依赖先天免疫系统来抵抗传染病?

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80 对抗原而言,免疫记忆需要延长暴露吗?

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81 为什么孕妇的免疫系统不拒绝其胎儿?

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82 什么与有机体的生物钟同步?

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83 迁徙生物怎样发现其迁移路线?

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84 为什么要睡眠?

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85 人类为什么会做梦?

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86 语言学习为什么存在临界期?

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87 信息素影响人类行为吗?

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88 一般麻醉剂如何发挥作用?

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89 导致精神分裂症的原因是什么?

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90 引发孤独症的原因是什么?

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91 阿兹海默症患者的生命能够延续多久?

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92 致瘾的生物学基础是什么?

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93 大脑如何建立道德观念?

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94 通过计算机进行学习的极限是什么?

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95 有多少个性源于遗传?

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96 性别倾向的生物学根源是什么?

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97 生命树是生命之间系统关系最好的表达方式吗?

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98 地球上有多少物种?

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99 什么是物种?

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100 横向转移为什么会发生在众多的物种中以及如何发生?

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101 谁是世界的共同祖先?

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102 植物的花朵如何进化?

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103 植物怎样制造细胞壁?

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104 如何控制植物生长?

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105 为什么所有的植物不能免疫一切疾病?

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106 外界压力环境下,植物的变异基础是什么?

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107 是什么引起物质消失?

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108 能否避免物种消亡?

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109 一些恐龙为什么如此庞大?

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110 生态系统对全球变暖的反应如何?

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111 至今共有多少人种,他们之间有何关联?

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112 是什么提升了现代人类的行为?

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113 什么是人类文化的根源?

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114 语言和音乐演化的根源是什么?

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115 什么是人种,人种如何进化?

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116 为什么一些国家向前发展,而有些国家的发展停滞?

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117 政府高额赤字对国家利益和经济增长速度有什么影响?

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118 政治与经济自由密切相关吗?

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119 为什么改变撒哈拉地区贫困状态的努力几乎全部失败?

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120 有没有简单的方法确定椭圆曲线是否存在无穷多解?

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121 霍奇闭链是代数闭链的和吗?

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122 数学家将会最终给出Navier-Stokes方程的解吗?

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123 庞加莱实验能否确定4维空间的球?

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124 黎曼zeta函数的零解都有a+bi形式吗?

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125 对粒子物理标准模型研究是否会停止在量子Yahg-Mills理论上?

注:最后 6 个数学问题选自 Clay 数学研究所提出的新千年问题